Line a fine-mesh sieve set over a measuring glass with cheesecloth. Heat butter, ginger, garlic, chiles de árbol, chipotle chile, cardamom, star anise, cinnamon stick, cloves, coriander seeds, cumin seeds, and peppercorns in a medium heavy saucepan over low until foaming and milk solids turn brown and begin to stick to bottom of pan, about 45 minutes.

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